Shifting human Smuggling routes along Turkey's borders
Despite externalized Migration policies within Europe in order to secure borders and an enormous concern for human Smuggling in the Media and political debates, people continue to cross borders under desperate circumstances regardless of the
dangers. Paradoxically, rather than achieving its proclaimed aim of “preventing unwanted entries,” externalized Migration policies and increased border controls generated Displacement towards more dangerous routes and perilous journeys. Diverted Migration to other crossing points and enhanced controls on EU borders have made migrants more dependent on Smuggling, despite the increase of both costs and risks. In this article, the author explores the Displacement effect along the route of Eastern Mediterranean, by presenting changing human Smuggling networks as well as shifting trends between Turkey’s borders with Greece and Bulgaria.